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There are a lot of satisfied customers because thanks to subjective validation , it is easy to shoehorn any event to fit a chart. To say astrology "works" does not mean that astrology is accurate in predicting human behavior or events to a degree significantly greater than mere chance. There are many satisfied customers who believe that their horoscope accurately describes them and that their astrologer has given them good advice.

Such evidence does not prove astrology so much as it demonstrates the Forer effect and confirmation bias. Good astrologers give good advice, but that does not validate astrology. There have been several studies that have shown that people will use selective thinking to make any chart they are given fit their preconceived notions about themselves and their charts.

Many of the claims made about signs and personalities are vague and would fit many people under many different signs. Yet, astrology continues to maintain its popularity, despite the fact that there is scarcely a shred of scientific evidence in its favor. Even the former First Lady of the United States, Nancy Reagan, and her husband, Ronald, consulted an astrologer while he was the leader of the free world , demonstrating once again that astrologers have more influence than the stars do.

See also cosmobiology , magical thinking , Mars effect , rumpology , and How F. Don't be surprised if we next hear from the astrologers demanding their "rightful" place in our universities. Ivan Kelly, foremost critic of astrology, sent me a copy of a troublesome article by astrologer Valerie Vaughan. Vaughan claims that astrologers are persecuted by establishment science.

That is why astrologers can't get "access to research funding. At most, it might be considered a social science. Having firmly established that astrology is a social science, she then notes that "other social sciences, such as history, are not regularly attacked for their failure to apply scientific methodology in a laboratory setting. Apparently, Ms. Vaughan does not understand that scientific methodologies can be and are regularly applied outside a lab in the social sciences. Some of these methodologies are based on logical principles such as Mill's Methods , which most astrologers do not seem to believe apply to their discipline.


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Some of these methodologies involve the use of statistical analysis of data. Vaughan understands the need for statistical analysis, but does not believe the usual scientific protocols apply to astrology. She says that scientists "insist on statistical analysis using random samples. But astrology cannot be proved or disproved using random samples because astrology is based on the premise that conditions are never random. But Vaughan has something else in mind. Those studies made the assumption. Or suppose that preliminary research does reveal some validity in astrology, but in a later attempt at replicating the results, the Moon is void of course or Neptune is rising?

Of course the results will be inconclusive! This sounds like special pleading to me. Further complicating matters, she says, is that when scientists read "non-astrologers" test astrology they test parts of a person's chart. They ignore "the wholeness of a chart. Astrology is incredibly complex; there are innumerable variables which must be considered before an astrologer can confidently make a statement. Practitioners of astrology know that no one factor, such as the Moon in Aquarius, can 'mean' anything in an absolute sense. That Aquarian Moon could be out-of-bounds, in a different house, opposed Saturn, or affected by any number of other conditions that modify its significance.

Vaughan has no awareness that it is this very complexity which marks astrology as a pseudoscience. Nothing could ever disprove it. Astrology can explain everything that happens, even contradictory events. There is always some ready ad hoc hypothesis to explain away any apparent refuting data. However, what is disturbing about Vaughan's article is not her profound misunderstanding of science and scientific methodologies, but her call to astrologers to take to the road like the creationists did a few years ago and go on the attack.

She is outraged that there are now textbooks in our schools that "contain entire units or learning activities aggressively aimed at teaching students to distinguish between science and 'pseudoscience. This must be changed, she says. The debunkers of astrology are "intellectual control junkies who cannot bear the thought of a phenomenon they can't explain. Because of their need for intellectual and financial control, they keep expanding their territory, applying the scientific approach to areas that are just plain none of their business. According to Vaughan, "scientist debunkers [of astrology] have entered the realm of public school education, but what else would you expect with Pluto currently in Sagittarius?

That is not all. Vaughan invites us to go with her down the slippery slope to envision science "infiltrating" the humanities, religion, philosophy, ethics--where "even poetry and drama are at risk.

Library of the Cape Astrology Association

Vaughan's article is primarily a call to action. She urges astrologers not to sit back and be persecuted by Science. She advises that astrologers try to get astrology into the public school curriculum under the guise of "multicultural frameworks. Since every culture in the world has developed a form of astrology, it is inherently diverse A possible tactic is to approach the school authorities about admitting Western Astrology as a valid cultural tradition, and see what happens.

Another approach, she says, is to try to take advantage of "a new educational craze which emphasizes student participation. The idea here is that, if students show an interest in a particular question no matter how unrelated it is to the established curriculum , teachers are supposed to follow the direction of inquiry and incorporate it into the lesson.

In other words, if students in an astronomy class show an interest in astrology, the new standards stipulate that the teacher shouldn't say that this is a topic students are not supposed to be learning. It will be interesting to see how this kind of situation is handled, because it is in direct confrontation with the standards that allow science teachers to debunk astrology under the guise of instruction in science history, 'critical thinking,' and scientific method.

Knowledgeable readers might shrug and laugh at Vaughan's notions and suppose that astrologers aren't going to get that close to any school curriculum. Think again. Astrologers have children and can belong to the P. Their kids can bring them to school for show-and-tell.

Or, they could have credentials like Vaughan. She has a master's degree in Information Science and is the director of a science education library, where her duties include staying current with "guidelines and trends in science teaching, and to review the latest curriculum materials available. Astrologers now have their own college.

2- Impact on the public

Here is another report about the same event from Galileo's book The Assayer:. Tycho Brahe —a "real" astronomer and scientist —begins work on his observatory on the island of Hven heaven between Denmark and Sweden. His father is horrified and rescues him from the monastery. In defiance of his father's wishes, Galileo secretly continues his Jesuit "studies" in Florence.

Because of his troublesome behavior, Galileo is expelled from the university without a degree. For the next 6 years he tutors privately in mathematics.

His "genius" alone does not commend him for the job so he visits Rome for a recommendation. He meets the Jesuit "astronomer" Christopher Clavius. Clavius was the "brains" behind the Gregorian calendar. Galileo fails to get the recommendation. His 3 year contract is not renewed. For the next 6 years he occupies his time in lecturing and trying to invent moneymaking devices for the Venetian military. None of his "inventions" are useful or financially successful. He has 3 children by a prostitute named Maria Gamba. He writes a book entitled Starry Messenger which becomes a bestseller throughout Europe People are comparing him to Columbus and Magellan!!

Astrology of Earthquakes

He leaves Venice and becomes chief mathematician to the grand duke of Tuscany. Kepler lauds Galileo's book with a book of his own entitled A Conversation with the Starry Messenger. Nunneries were the common dumping grounds for the female children of priests and monks Being illegitimate, they had absolutely no prospects for marriage and only DEATH could release them from the living tomb that was the nunnery!! The sermon causes a storm of controversy in Florence. The Dominican Inquisitor Niccolo Riccardi advises him to make a "few" changes before publishing the book. This is his 6th trip to Rome.

He has 3 court appearance before the Inquisition in which he finally recants his heliocentric views. Most of the judges are Dominicans who despise the Jesuits and their Copernican "astronomy. Galileo dies and immediately becomes a martyr for "science. Thanks to Jesuit duplicity and publicity, he is seen as the deliverer of the world from the outdated "unscientific" Biblical view of the earth as the center of the universe and the sun orbiting the earth.

Life and Times of Tycho Brahe. Tycho Brahe Homepage. Official Geocentricity Website. List of Jesuit generals. Galileo, Galilei. Stillman Drake Translator. Drake, Stillman Translator. Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. Anchor Books, New York. Drake, Stillman. Galileo at Work, His Scientific Biography. King, H.

The History of the Telescope. Sky Publishing Co.

Magic, witchcraft, & things that go bump in the night: Divination

Pannekoek, Anton. A History of Astronomy. Reston, James Jr.


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  7. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, Shea, William R. Galileo in Rome. Oxford University Press, New York, Sobel, Dava. Galileo's Daughter. Back to Main Menu. Galileo Unmasked at Last!! Galileo means man from Galilee in Italian!! We are here for you. Toggle navigation 1. Psychic Readings Horoscopes Support new? Get Started. Angel Love. I am honest, kind, caring, informative, with a total understanding of the make-up of the human heart Available. I do not use tools, but will connect to you by reading your energy. My readings are detailed and honest. Offering guidance and hope during periods of confusion Offline.

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